NOTES DE FIN
1 Over the last century, the Swiss economy has been a strong performer. Despite the country’s natural resource limitations (water, hydropower and some agriculture notwithstanding) Switzerland has built a powerful and robust economic engine that is tightly integrated into the global economy. Through these trade relationships, Swiss businesses have been able to secure all the resources they needed. They could afford it thanks to their competitive advantage built on specialization, brand-management, a highly skilled labour force and innovation.
2 Pour plus d’informations, consultez https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessmentreport/ar5/wg3/WG3AR5_SPM_brochure_fr.pdf et http://www.actu– environnement.com/ae/news/rapport–giec–2c–emissions–ges–temperatures–hausse–21395.php4
3 For more information on natural resource demand from a Footprint perspective, visit footprintnetwork.org. Other resource data sets are available from the World Resources Institute at www.wri.org/resources/data sets.
4 Switzerland’s commitment is available at http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Switzerland/1/15%2002%2027_ INDC%20Contribution%20of%20Switzerland.pdf. Data on Switzerland’s emissions, reported by UNFCCC are available here: https://unfccc.int/files/ghg_emissions_data/application/pdf/che_ghg_profile.pdf. The independent assessment by Climate Action Tracker rates the Swiss performance as “medium” – stating that “With currently implemented policies and measures, Switzerland will neither be able to meet its pledge nor its INDC.” http://climateactiontracker.org/countries/developed/switzerland.html.
5 As fossil fuel is becoming less of an option, the economy will have to rely increasingly on renewable resources. Minerals and metals will be less of an immediate concern as deeper mines will give access to those resources, but this comes at the cost of using more energy, which without fossil fuel is mainly limited by renewable potential. Renewable resources are direct sunlight, as well as indirect sunlight, i.e., biological resources (or biocapacity) and wind/water energy.
6 Mathis Wackernagel et Bert Beyers 2016. „Footprint: Die Welt neu vermessen.“ (eben erschienene aufgefrischte Version): http://www3.europaeische–de/content/footprint–die–welt–neuvermessen–neuausgabe–2016–mit–aktuellen–zahlen–und–kommentaren/mathis or visit www.footprintnetwork.org
7 See Rockström, J., Steffen, W., Noone, K., Rersson, A., Chappin, F. S. I., Lambin, E., Lenton, T. M., Scheffer, M., Folke, C., Schellnhuber, H. J., Nykvist, B., De Wit, C. A., Hughes, T., Van Der Leeuw, S., Rodhe, H., Sornlin, S., Snyder, P., Constanza, R., Svedin, U., Falkenmark, M., Karberg, L., Corell, R. W., Fabry, V. J., Hansen, J., Walker, B., Liverman, D., Richardson, K., Crutzen, P. & Foley, J. 2009. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity. Ecology and Society, 14; An updated version is available at Steffen, W.; Richardson, K.; Rockstrom, J.; Cornell, S. E.; Fetzer, I.; Bennett, E. M.; Biggs, R.; Carpenter, S. R.; de Vries, W.; de Wit, C. A.; Folke, C.; Gerten, D.; Heinke, J.; Mace, G. M.; Persson, L. M.; Ramanathan, V.; Reyers, B.; Sorlin, S. (2015). “Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet”. Science 347 (6223). doi:10.1126/science.1259855
8 A tragedy of the commons is a situation in which benefits are concentrated and costs are diffused. For example, fishing in a public pond, the more I fish, the more fish I get. But there is less for the others, and it may eventually erode the entire fish stock to the detriment of all. Similarly, CO2 emissions are a tragedy of the commons because, as the emitter gets the benefit of fossil fuel use. But the costs of climate change are put on all of humanity.
9 For more information see: http://www.are.admin.ch/dienstleistungen/04135/05243/index.html?lang=de (It includes a longer report, in English, French and German, Global Footprint Network and BakBasel produced for the Swiss ministries).
10 Austria, Belgium, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherland, Norway, Sweden, UK, USA.
11 In view of the immovable resource trends, it could become more problematic to rely solely on international trade as the “endless” resources provider. If competition for resource access stiffens or trade relationships become less reliable, how will Switzerland be able to bridge the gap between the residents’ resource consumption and the domestic resource availability? Would recognizing this dilemma require us to recognize domestic resource endowment as a driver of economic vitality and resilience? Does it encourage each investor, whether private or public, to employ strategies that can address risks emerging from biocapacity deficits?
12 The Ecological Footprint (or Footprint) adds up all human demands on nature that compete for biologically productive space: providing biological resources, accommodating urban infrastructure or absorbing excess carbon from fossil fuel burning. The Footprint is compared with all the available biologically productive space (biocapacity). Both can be calculated at the global, national, local and personal levels. To make them comparable, they are expressed in a standardized unit: global hectares – biologically productive hectares with world average productivity in a given year
14 Currently, a large portion of the value-added of a supply chain goes to the brand-holder of the final product. This underlines the significance of maintaining a strong brand. But it is not clear whether brandadvantages can be maintained over the long-run.
15 “At least since Paul Samuelson first published his famous, standard-setting textbook in 1948, it has been popular to label the two goods in question “Guns” and “Butter.” This dichotomy, which probably has its origins in political discussions about the costs of military build-ups prior to the First World War, captures the very real trade-off societies typically face in the allocation of resources between national defense and private consumption goods. This same basic trade-off applies to all goods and services produced by the government.” Al Broaddus, President, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, https://www.richmondfed.org/~/media/richmondfedorg/publications/research/region_focus/2003/su mmer/pdf/noteworthy.pdf